Mushroom mushroom: description of varieties and features of preparation


Almost all currently known varieties of mushrooms, from the Latin Xerocomus, belong to the genus tubular fungi and the Boletaceae or Boletaceae family. The genus name is derived from the characteristics of the place of growth. An insignificant part of taxonomists is inclined to attribute the moss fly to the genus Borovik or Boletus. This situation is due to the pronounced heterogeneity of the genus.

Morphological description of the moss fly

The description of the morphological features characterizing the flywheels is as follows:

  • dry hat with slight velvety;
  • in some species, in wet weather, the surface of the hat looks sticky;
  • older specimens of fruiting bodies have pronounced cracking on the surface of the cap;
  • whitish, yellowish or reddish staining, the flesh may differ in bluish cut;
  • tubular type yellow, greenish-yellow or red hymenophore descends along the pedicle or grows to it;
  • tubular pores are relatively wide;
  • with a smooth or wrinkled surface, the leg does not have a bedspread or ring.

In our country, only seven types of flywheels are widespread.

Varieties of Mosses

Eighteen species but in Russia, lovers of "silent" hunting have the opportunity to meet the five most common varieties, among which there are completely no toxic and deadly poisonous varieties.

Name of the speciesLatinHatLegPulp
Red or blushingXerocomellus rubellusIn diameter up to 80 mm, cushion-convex or open, saturated red in color with a pronounced brownish tint. The surface is velvety-felt type, but cracks may be presentCylindrical with narrowing at the base, standing no more than 10 cm, solid or fibrous type, yellow or pinkish stainingDense type, yellow staining, slightly blue on the cut
GreenXerocomus subtomentosusPillow-convex, with a velvety surface, grayish or olive-brownCylindrical or tapering at the base of the form, smooth, fibrous type with a dark mesh on the surfaceWhite staining, does not turn blue or slightly turns blue on a cut
Fissured or grazingXerocomellus chrysenteronDiameters up to 10 cm, convex or pillow-shaped, with a dry and dull surface, burgundy red, brown, olive-brown, brown, brown-red in color with a mesh-cracking pattern of a pinkish tintClub-shaped, dark-fissured, with small scale in the upper part and red in the bottomWhitish or yellowish staining, intensely bluish in cut
Polish mushroomBoletus badiusIn diameter up to 15 cm, semicircular, convex, pillow-shaped or flat, covered with a non-removable skin, with a smooth and dry surface of chestnut brown, dark brown or chocolate brownCylindrical or with a slight narrowing at the bottom, fibrous, light brown, brown or yellow with red-brown fibrousFleshy type, fairly dense, whitish or yellowish in color, slightly bluish and brown on cut, with a pleasant mushroom aroma and mild taste

Similar mushrooms

False or inedible, but non-toxic, mushroom mushrooms are represented by species such as the parasitic mushroom or Xerocomus parasiticus and astraeva or Xerocomus astraeicolus. The most common species in the forests of our country is Xerocomus parasiticus. The fruiting bodies of this small-sized flywheel, have a pronounced external similarity with young specimens of green moss fly and have the following characteristics:

  • convex and slightly velvety or oily type hat;
  • the average diameter of the cap can vary between 20-70 mm;
  • staining of the surface of the cap of the mushroom can be yellow, light nut or ocher brown;
  • light yellow flesh has practically no mushroom taste and aroma, without blueness in the cut;

Description of Mushroom Boletus Mushrooms

  • creeping type tubular layer is represented by tubes ranging in size from 3 mm to 7 mm;
  • lemon yellow or rusty brown pores are quite wide, with the presence of ribbed edges;
  • solid type, cylindrical shape of the leg in height reaches not more than 60 mm.

Fruit bodies of this species can be consumed for food purposes, but mushroom pickers quite often neglect the collection of the parasitic moss fly due to the low palatability and nutritional value and the specific taste of the pulp.

Distribution Territory

Boletus badius forms mycorrhiza with conifers, and also often grows under firs, beech and oak. Preference is given to sandy soils of coniferous plantings. Species quite common in our country include the flywheel Xerocomellus chrysenteron, which bears fruit on acid and loose soils in the period from the second decade of August to mid-September.

The fruiting bodies of Xerocomellus rubellus form in the period from August to the first decade of September. The species Xerocomus subtomentosus is characterized by the formation of mycorrhiza not only with conifers, but also with deciduous trees. This cosmopolitan mushroom massively bears fruit in the period from May to the first decade of October and grows both in forest zones, and on clearings or roadsides.

Chemical composition

The chemical composition of the mushrooms of the mushrooms is rich in vitamins "B", "C", "E", "PP", and also has a sufficient amount of calcium, chlorine, zinc, sodium, fluorine, potassium and phosphorus. 100 g of mushroom pulp contains:

  • proteins of the order of 1.7 g, which is approximately 2% of the daily norm;
  • fats not less than 0.7 g, which is at least 1% of the daily allowance;
  • carbohydrates at the level of 1.5 g, which is about 0.7% of the daily norm.

The total calorie content is about 19 kcal.

Where the moss grows

Cooking methods

The greatest value is the Polish mushroom, which can be used to prepare many mushroom dishes, and also has proven itself in the freezing, drying and pickling. Pastured flywheels in the prepared form have a mucous consistency, therefore most often, young fruiting bodies are used for use in mushroom dishes, which are used fresh and salty, and are also suitable for drying and freezing.

The fruit bodies of the reddish moss fly have a rather pleasant mushroom aroma, but completely inexpressive gustatory qualities. As a rule, mushrooms of this species are used freshly prepared. It should also be remembered that as a result of drying, the fruiting bodies of Xerocomellus rubellus darken strongly. Green flywheels are usually used freshly prepared, and during the drying process the fruit bodies turn black.

Flywheels are one of the most popular among connoisseurs of "quiet" hunting of mushrooms. You can make a large number of delicious and very healthy dishes from the moss-loaves. Preparation should begin with a review of the collected fruiting bodies and removal of forest debris, as well as a thorough two-time wash under running water.

Mushrooms are used for cooking soups, stewing in sour cream, frying, preparing toppings for pies or pizza, as well as in vegetable stew. You can cook dishes for direct consumption, as well as carry out the harvesting of mushrooms for the winter, through salting, pickling and drying. Before salting, the mushrooms should be doused with boiling water, which will allow the fruit bodies to maintain their attractive color.



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