Almost all currently known varieties of mushrooms, from the Latin Xerocomus, belong to the genus tubular fungi and the Boletaceae or Boletaceae family. The genus name is derived from the characteristics of the place of growth. An insignificant part of taxonomists is inclined to attribute the moss fly to the genus Borovik or Boletus. This situation is due to the pronounced heterogeneity of the genus.
The description of the morphological features characterizing the flywheels is as follows:
In our country, only seven types of flywheels are widespread.
Eighteen species but in Russia, lovers of "silent" hunting have the opportunity to meet the five most common varieties, among which there are completely no toxic and deadly poisonous varieties.
|Name of the species||Latin||Hat||Leg||Pulp|
|Red or blushing||Xerocomellus rubellus||In diameter up to 80 mm, cushion-convex or open, saturated red in color with a pronounced brownish tint. The surface is velvety-felt type, but cracks may be present||Cylindrical with narrowing at the base, standing no more than 10 cm, solid or fibrous type, yellow or pinkish staining||Dense type, yellow staining, slightly blue on the cut|
|Green||Xerocomus subtomentosus||Pillow-convex, with a velvety surface, grayish or olive-brown||Cylindrical or tapering at the base of the form, smooth, fibrous type with a dark mesh on the surface||White staining, does not turn blue or slightly turns blue on a cut|
|Fissured or grazing||Xerocomellus chrysenteron||Diameters up to 10 cm, convex or pillow-shaped, with a dry and dull surface, burgundy red, brown, olive-brown, brown, brown-red in color with a mesh-cracking pattern of a pinkish tint||Club-shaped, dark-fissured, with small scale in the upper part and red in the bottom||Whitish or yellowish staining, intensely bluish in cut|
|Polish mushroom||Boletus badius||In diameter up to 15 cm, semicircular, convex, pillow-shaped or flat, covered with a non-removable skin, with a smooth and dry surface of chestnut brown, dark brown or chocolate brown||Cylindrical or with a slight narrowing at the bottom, fibrous, light brown, brown or yellow with red-brown fibrous||Fleshy type, fairly dense, whitish or yellowish in color, slightly bluish and brown on cut, with a pleasant mushroom aroma and mild taste|
False or inedible, but non-toxic, mushroom mushrooms are represented by species such as the parasitic mushroom or Xerocomus parasiticus and astraeva or Xerocomus astraeicolus. The most common species in the forests of our country is Xerocomus parasiticus. The fruiting bodies of this small-sized flywheel, have a pronounced external similarity with young specimens of green moss fly and have the following characteristics:
Fruit bodies of this species can be consumed for food purposes, but mushroom pickers quite often neglect the collection of the parasitic moss fly due to the low palatability and nutritional value and the specific taste of the pulp.
Boletus badius forms mycorrhiza with conifers, and also often grows under firs, beech and oak. Preference is given to sandy soils of coniferous plantings. Species quite common in our country include the flywheel Xerocomellus chrysenteron, which bears fruit on acid and loose soils in the period from the second decade of August to mid-September.
The fruiting bodies of Xerocomellus rubellus form in the period from August to the first decade of September. The species Xerocomus subtomentosus is characterized by the formation of mycorrhiza not only with conifers, but also with deciduous trees. This cosmopolitan mushroom massively bears fruit in the period from May to the first decade of October and grows both in forest zones, and on clearings or roadsides.
The chemical composition of the mushrooms of the mushrooms is rich in vitamins "B", "C", "E", "PP", and also has a sufficient amount of calcium, chlorine, zinc, sodium, fluorine, potassium and phosphorus. 100 g of mushroom pulp contains:
The total calorie content is about 19 kcal.
The greatest value is the Polish mushroom, which can be used to prepare many mushroom dishes, and also has proven itself in the freezing, drying and pickling. Pastured flywheels in the prepared form have a mucous consistency, therefore most often, young fruiting bodies are used for use in mushroom dishes, which are used fresh and salty, and are also suitable for drying and freezing.
The fruit bodies of the reddish moss fly have a rather pleasant mushroom aroma, but completely inexpressive gustatory qualities. As a rule, mushrooms of this species are used freshly prepared. It should also be remembered that as a result of drying, the fruiting bodies of Xerocomellus rubellus darken strongly. Green flywheels are usually used freshly prepared, and during the drying process the fruit bodies turn black.
Flywheels are one of the most popular among connoisseurs of "quiet" hunting of mushrooms. You can make a large number of delicious and very healthy dishes from the moss-loaves. Preparation should begin with a review of the collected fruiting bodies and removal of forest debris, as well as a thorough two-time wash under running water.
Mushrooms are used for cooking soups, stewing in sour cream, frying, preparing toppings for pies or pizza, as well as in vegetable stew. You can cook dishes for direct consumption, as well as carry out the harvesting of mushrooms for the winter, through salting, pickling and drying. Before salting, the mushrooms should be doused with boiling water, which will allow the fruit bodies to maintain their attractive color.