Almost all mushroom pickers know that there are edible and inedible, as well as poisonous mushrooms that can cause human poisoning. Inedible species of mushrooms are low-toxic mushrooms, which for certain reasons are not used for food purposes. The list of such species is quite extensive.
The description and name of many inedible species is known to most experienced quiet hunters, but for beginning mushroom pickers it is very difficult to determine the degree of inedibility of the fungusand distinguish between inedible species and edible species.
In our country, it is customary to classify mushrooms as inedible. whose fruiting bodies cannot be eaten for various indicators, but not in connection with their toxicity:
Potentially edible species that grow on unattractive substrates, including manure or excrement, are generally classified as inedible mushrooms. Also, fruiting bodies of many fungi from the mycene, negunichnaceous, crepidote, ordinary, stroparius, nesting, heterobasidial and marsupial family are not used for the preparation of mushroom dishes, which is due to their too small size and mediocre taste.
It should be noted that inedible varieties are not able to pose a pronounced threat to human health and life, but can spoil the taste of mushroom dishes, therefore It is important to distinguish which species belong to this category. To distinguish such mushrooms inexperienced mushroom pickers will allow a special table.
|View name||Latin||Distribution area||Reason for inedibility|
|Inedible boletus||Boletus calopus||Coniferous, oak and broad-leaved forests with acidic sandy soils, under oaks in the territory of squares and parks||The taste of pulp is too bitter|
|Golden yellow||Lactarius chrysorrheus||Grows singly or in small groups in deciduous forest zones||Very sharp and unpleasant pepper taste|
|Gall mushroom||Tylopilus felleus||More often, fruiting bodies grow singly or in small groups on acidic and fertile soils of coniferous forests.||The bitterness of the flesh is enhanced during the heat treatment|
|Common raincoat||Scleroderma citrinum||On soil or rotting wood in forests, young plantings, on meadows and fields, on roadsides and forest edges||The fruit body is dense and leathery, dotted with brownish scales or embossed warts|
|Acute Milky||Lactarius acerrimus||In deciduous forest areas under oaks||Very sharp and unpleasant pepper taste|
|Coprinus home||Coprinellus domesticus||It grows in groups on dead wood and stumps of deciduous trees.||Unpleasant appearance and taste of pulp|
|The cobweb is deceiving||Cortinarius decipiens||Grows in coniferous and deciduous forest zones||Does not matter nutritionally|
|Pepper butterdish||Chalciporus piperatus||Most often found in coniferous forests, where it forms mycorrhiza with pine||It has a very spicy and peppery taste.|
|Tinder fungus||Phellinus igniarius||Focal lesion of living and dead wood, stumps and dead wood||The tissue of the fruit body is very hard, woody type|
|The russula is pungent||Russula emetica||Forms mycorrhiza with trees in coniferous and deciduous forests||Inedible due to bitter flesh|
|Scanty trick||Pluteus exiguus||Dead wood of deciduous trees||Does not matter nutritionally|
|Bowler talker||Clitocybe diatreta||Badlands and sandy soils in pine and birch forests||May contain muscarine or muscarine-like components.|
The absolute external similarity of inedible double mushrooms with edible species is obvious only at first glance. A closer examination of the fruiting bodies allows us to recognize a number of differences with which such species differ:
Most inedible species have a very noticeable ovoid thickening in the root of the leg. Among other things, there are several very common misconceptions regarding the definition of edibility of mushrooms.
It must be remembered that many inedible species have a very pleasant mushroom aroma, and the fruiting body can be gnawed by snails and slugs. It is also important to note that poisoning can cause not only inedible and potentially dangerous varieties of mushrooms, but also completely edible species, the fruiting bodies of which have grown or are damaged by worms and other insect larvae.
Despite the fact that most inedible species do not cause poisoning, in some cases a reaction similar to poisoning may occur, which is due to the individual characteristics of the body. The main symptoms of mushroom poisoning are as follows:
Also poisoning is caused by old or not immediately processed fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms.
Any poisoning is especially dangerous for children, the elderly, pregnant or lactating women, as well as those suffering from allergic reactions. In this case, the victim must be taken to a medical facility as soon as possible. First aid measures include:
It is necessary to make it a rule to collect only well-known mushrooms, the edibility of which is certain, which will reduce the risk of poisoning to minimum values.