When growing garden crops in the Moscow Region and most regions of Russia, fruit tree seedlings are usually planted in the spring. This procedure is not burdensome for the gardener and guarantees survival of almost any fruit and berry shrubs and trees.
The lunar calendar is based on the periods of the phase change of the moon, that is, the synodic months. Many amateur gardeners actively use the lunar and lunar-solar calendars to determine the time when it is best to plant plants in spring or autumn in a homestead environment.
According to the lunar calendar, it is not recommended to plant and transplant fruit and berry plants in the full moon. In order to plant seedlings correctly and get a healthy and abundant fruiting fruit or berry culture, it is advisable to adhere to the dates indicated in the table.
|Garden culture||March landing days||Landing days in April||May landing days|
|Apricot, cherry and plum seedlings||1 and 2 28 and 29||2 and 3 29 and 30||3 and 4 30 and 31|
|Quince and pear seedlings||1 and 2 6 and 7||2 and 3 29 and 30||3 and 4 23, 27 and 28|
|Hawthorn seedlings||2 and 7 29||3 26 and 30||23, 27 and 28, 31|
|Saplings of a berry, viburnum and sea-buckthorn||6 and 7||25 and 26, 29||4 27 and 28|
|Gooseberry, raspberry and currant seedlings||7 28 and 29||3 25 and 30||23, 27 and 28, 31|
|Apple tree seedlings||Landing is undesirable||2 and 3 25 and 26 29 and 30||3 and 4 27 and 28 30 and 31|
|Sweet cherry seedlings||7 and 29||2 and 3 25||3 and 4 27|
Climatic conditions in the Moscow Region are moderately continental and are transitional from a mild European climate to a sharply continental Asian. Such features, together with the qualitative characteristics of the soil in the suburbs, make the spring planting of fruit and berry crops optimal. When choosing the timing of the event, it should be borne in mind that the following types of soil prevail in the Moscow Region:
Features of the soil affect the degree of warming in the spring. However, regardless of the type of soil, planting of berry and fruit crops must be carried out before sap flow and budding, which increases the survival rate of the plant. Especially important is the early spring planting for cherries and cherries, which, when planted in the autumn, very often freeze out. Apricots can only be planted in the third decade of April, after sufficient warming up of the soil and with minimal risk of spring return frosts. Fruit plants such as apple trees, pears and plums in the southern suburbs are allowed to be planted not only in the early spring, but also in the fall, about a month and a half before severe frosts.
In recent years, the share of sales of planting material with a closed root system has increased. Such plants are not particularly demanding on the timing of planting in a permanent place, so they can be planted both in spring and early autumn. However, it is very important that the plant is precisely grown in the container sold, and not transplanted there immediately before the sale.
In order not to delay planting in the spring, planting pits should be prepared in the fall, observing the necessary size and distance between planting fruit or berry plantings.
In the first couple of years after planting in a permanent place, a young tree or bush uses substances that were introduced into the pit during planting for nutrition, which implies proper soil preparation and its competent enrichment with necessary nutrients. Preparation of the pit in the autumn allows the soil to fully settle during the winter period. The best survival rate of plants is observed in round pits with steep walls.
The average size of the planting pit depends on the age and type of fruit and berry culture, as well as the structural parameters of the soil on the site for planting:
The best option would be to plant plants on light sandy soils with a good level of water permeability. In order to reduce filtration indicators, the bottom of the planting pit should be covered with a clay layer with peat in a proportion of 50/50, the thickness of which should be about 10 cm.For garden plantations on weak types of rootstocks, the areas represented by breathable soils, as well as chestnut loamy soils, are the best.
The top layer of the removed soil should be mixed with 18-20 kg of rotted manure or 25-30 kg of peat, and also add 0.3 kg of superphosphate and 0.15 kg of potash fertilizers. Regardless of the method of planting, it is necessary to evenly distribute the root system along the landing pit. Immediately after planting, it is recommended to trim the aerial parts by one third, which will restore the balance between the root system and the crown.
Standard care for fruit plantations involves the implementation of all basic agricultural measures:
The main concern of the gardener in the summer is to fully ensure the increased demand of fruit trees and berry bushes for basic nutrients and moisture, as well as protecting plantings from pests and diseases and removing weeds.