The most common edible mushrooms


Mushrooms - this is what fruit bodies of macromycetes fungi isolated in the independent kingdom of wildlife, or Fungi, are called in colloquial usage. The shape of the fruiting body of an edible fungus can be very diverse. Edible forest mushrooms grow on the territory of our country with hat-shaped, fan-shaped, multi-cap, coral-shaped, spherical, cup-shaped and open fruit bodies or with colorful and plain hats.

Species names

Depending on the soil and climatic conditions in the growing region, the beginning and end of the mushroom period can vary both in terms of time and in intensity. The first spring, there are a few varieties of morels, champignons and conditionally edible lines. They are collected almost immediately after snow melting and soil warming up.

In addition, it should be remembered that edible species may fall into one of four categories by nutritional value. Even if the mushroom is edible, its taste is not too high, so you need to be able to identify and distinguish the most valuable types of mushrooms. The ten most popular edible species in our country are as follows.

View nameFruit seasonFruit body and pulpNutrition Category
Morel (from Latin Morchella)From mid-April to the last decade of MayWrinkled and winding hat of brown color. The leg is shortened. Pulp requires boilingConditionally edible mushroom of the third category
Maypole Mushroom (from Latin Calócybe gambósa)From mid-May to the last days of JuneCreamy flocculent cap. The leg is straight, whitish. The pulp is dense, with a mealy taste and aromaEdible or conditionally edible, mediocre taste
Oyster mushroom (from Latin Pleurotus)From the first decade of May to the last days of OctoberThe hat is light, with curved edges. Leg is small in size. The pulp has a pleasant taste with unexpressed aromaEdible, mediocre taste
Cep (from Latin Boletus edulis)From the last decade of June to the end of OctoberA hat with a smooth or wrinkled surface, brownish or dark brown. The leg is powerful and stocky. Pulp with high nutritional valueGreat edible mushroom of the first category
Ginger (from Latin Lactarius)From mid-summer to the first decade of OctoberFruit bodies have a characteristic yellow-pink or orange-red colorGreat edible mushroom of the first category
Chanterelle real (from Latin Cantharēllus cibārius)From the first of June to OctoberA characteristic orange-yellow color of fruit bodies with a pronounced fruity aroma of pulpGreat edible mushroom of the first category
Red-headed boletus (from Latin Leccinum aurantiacum)From mid-June to the last days of SeptemberThe hat is covered with red, orange or brownish-red, smooth or slightly velvety skin. Leg with longitudinally fibrous scales. Pulp without pronounced taste and aromaGood edible mushroom of the second category
Common boletus or blackhead (from Latin Leccinum scabrum)From the last decade of May to mid-OctoberHat of various colors. Leg with longitudinal whitish or dark colored scales. The pulp has no pronounced taste and aroma.Good edible mushroom of the second category
Oiler (from Latin Suillus)From the first of June to OctoberThe hat is most often smooth, covered with a sticky or mucous membrane that can be easily peeled off. The leg may have the remains of the bedspread. The pulp may turn blue or redden on the cutGood edible mushroom of the second category
Honey agaric (from Latin Armillaria melle)From the middle of the last summer month to the middle of OctoberThe surface of the cap is covered with rare and light scales, which disappear over time. The leg is continuous. Pulp with a pleasant taste and smellEdible mushroom of the third category

A little less popular among connoisseurs of "silent hunting" are mugs, moss-flies, oak trees, trawls and numerous varieties of russula.

Edibility Definition

The main condition for a successful and correct "quiet hunt" is the ability to correctly distinguish between edible species from inedible and very poisonous. To help novice mushroom pickers, not only special pictures have been created that clearly illustrate the main differences between edible and inedible species of mushrooms, but also a detailed description of the fruiting body of the mushroom, which allows you to find out what they are called and look like.

Silent Hunt: Edible Mushrooms

What mushrooms can cause poisoning or cause irreparable harm to human health, can be recognized based on the following recommendations:

  • when collecting fruiting bodies, it is necessary to consider the underside of the cap and the spore-bearing layer, or hymenophore, represented by plates, folds, spines or tubes;
  • the most valuable mushrooms that grow in our country have a tubular underlap layer;
  • mushrooms growing on wood with a pleasant mushroom smell most often belong to the category of edible or conditionally edible species;
  • poisonous counterparts of the porcini mushroom most popular among domestic mushroom pickers characteristically change the color of the pulp on the cut;
  • all poisonous and inedible doubles of honey mushrooms have a pronounced reddish or greenish tint on the surface of the cap, and the ring on the leg is always absent;
  • The edible fox can be distinguished from the false one by the presence of an inedible double of bright yellow-orange color and a very even edge of the hat.

The greatest danger is the deadly poisonous mushroom, the pale grebe, which has a whitish or pale green hat and a translucent ring on the leg. It is strictly forbidden to pick unfamiliar or suspicious mushrooms.

Nutritional value and cooking features

Fresh fruit bodies of mushrooms are almost 90% water. Also, mushroom pulp contains about 3-6% protein and the same amount of carbohydrates. During the drying process, the amount of protein increases to 30-50 g for every 100 g of product.

The fat content in the pulp does not exceed 1%. The composition and nutritional value vary depending on the type and place of growth. Nevertheless, almost all edible mushrooms are very highly appreciated by consumers and nutritionists for a fairly balanced content of fiber, vitamins, minerals and extractive substances. Many varieties are suitable for universal cooking, for which they must first be prepared:

  • a thorough examination of the fruiting bodies in order to identify slugs, various flies and bugs, leaves, soil and conifers;
  • rejection of broken and wormy fruiting bodies, as well as pruning of the root part;
  • it is necessary to remove the peel from the oil;
  • fruit bodies intended for drying, and saffron mushrooms in salting clean with a damp cloth;
  • expose the mushrooms not intended for drying to a thorough washing in running water;
  • to prevent darkening, you can immerse pure mushrooms in a solution of citric acid;
  • most milkers need to be soaked for several days, regularly replacing water;
  • pre-prepared fruiting bodies of edible species can be fried, boiled, stewed, salted or pickled, and also used as a filling and for the preparation of mushroom caviar or cold snacks.

It should be remembered that in children under three years of age there are completely no enzymes that are responsible for the digestion of specific mushroom proteins, so mushroom dishes should be completely excluded from the diet of preschool children.

Growing area and collection rules

Knowing where the main types of edible mushrooms grow, you can quite easily collect a good crop of high-quality fruiting bodies:

  • aspen mushrooms, real breasts most often grow in deciduous or mixed forest zones;
  • birch bark are common in deciduous forests and form mycorrhiza with birch;
  • mushrooms pine and spruce most often found in coniferous forests;
  • porcini mushrooms grow in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests.

How to distinguish poisonous mushrooms from edible

It is best to collect mushrooms in wicker baskets, where the fruit bodies will be provided with ventilation and there is no risk of getting a shapeless and sticky mushroom mass during transportation.



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